View All Articles

The Advantage of a Board-Certified Veterinary Anesthesiologist Caring for Your Pet

Few things cause pet owners more anxiety and fear than their beloved companion undergoing anesthesia. We understand how frightening this experience can be—we’re pet owners, too. So, we work hard to alleviate those fears with expert anesthetic administration and monitoring, and protocols tailored to your pet. Recently, we welcomed Dr. Raphael Vezina, a board-certified veterinary anesthesiologist who will help us provide your pet with the highest possible standard of care.

What does board certified in veterinary anesthesiology mean?

Some veterinarians, like doctors in human medicine, dedicate their professional lives to a specialty, such as anesthesia, and its applications. An anesthesiologist undergoes three years of rigorous extra training to become board-eligible. The designation means he is specially trained to administer anesthesia and to anticipate, recognize, and care for any anesthetic issues.

This is followed by a rigorous examination to achieve board-certification status from the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia (ACVAA). Passing this examination grants the status of Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia (DACVAA).

What does anesthesia involve for my pet and why is it necessary?

Anesthesia is controlled unconsciousness, where your pet is unaware, unable to move, and doesn’t feel pain, usually during surgery. These three points are key to ensuring the highest quality surgical care. Anesthesia may also be required for imaging cases, such as performing MRIs in animals.

The risks associated with anesthesia depend on the procedure being performed and your pet’s health status. Many pets do not need surgery—other than a spay or neuter procedure—until they are older and acquire dental disease or lumps and bumps. These older pets may suffer from concurrent diseases, such as kidney or heart failure, and a board-eligible anesthesiologist can help prepare patients best prior to anesthesia and tailor anesthetic protocols to each individual patient’s needs.

Many veterinarians refer their older patients to our hospital for surgical procedures because we have a board-certified anesthesiologist on staff. Your family veterinarian may do the same if your dog with heart issues, or your cat with chronic renal failure, needs to undergo anesthesia, or your pet needs in-depth diagnostic testing that is not available at her clinic. We will form a team to diagnose and treat your pet. As a specialty center, we are a full-service veterinary hospital that provides advanced care in neurology, emergency and critical care, internal medicine, oncology, and many other areas, and we are especially proud to offer the services of our board-certified anesthesiologist.

Before your pet’s anesthesia

After your family veterinarian refers your pet to us for a procedure requiring specialized anesthesia, we will first study her medical records to decide on her best anesthetic protocol. We may recommend additional testing, such as blood work, X-rays, an electrocardiogram, or an ultrasound, to determine the extent of your pet’s condition and the effect of anesthesia. We will perform a thorough physical examination to evaluate your pet’s health status, consult with your family veterinarian about the results, and formulate the best anesthetic plan to ensure your pet is pain-free, unaware, and safe during her surgery.

While your pet is anesthetized

When your pet is sufficiently sedated by the pre-medication, we will induce anesthesia, which generally involves an injectable medication to fully sedate her, and then an inhalant form to maintain her level of unconsciousness. With any anesthesia, we always place an endotracheal (breathing) tube down the pet’s throat to maintain the airway, provide oxygen and anesthetic gas, and prevent fluid from getting into the lungs.

anesthesia

Patients undergoing sedation and anesthesia are rigorously monitored so that any changes in their vital signs that could cause a danger to your pet is identified and treated according to current best practices.

Your pet will receive the same level of attention and care during anesthesia that you would. We use the same monitoring equipment used in human hospitals to check her vital signs, including:

  • Heart rate
  • Respiratory rate
  • Heart rhythm
  • Oxygenation level
  • Blood pressure
  • Temperature
  • Depth of anesthesia
  • Pain response

While machines are excellent at providing information regarding your pet’s status under anesthesia, there is no better monitor than our anesthesiologist, who will continuously check your pet’s signs and correct any problems.

After your pet’s anesthesia

The period after anesthesia is critical, and we will closely monitor your pet to ensure she is recovering well from anesthesia and all her vital signs are returning to an awake animal’s normal levels. To help your pet wake up smoothly and comfortably from anesthesia, we follow these rules:

  • Keep the room semi-dark and quiet.
  • Monitor pain and administer more pain control as needed.
  • Maintain ideal body temperature with warming units and blankets.
  • Ensure your pet is breathing well, alert, and swallowing normally before removing the endotracheal tube.
  • Keep your pet calm; some pets become dysphoric during recovery and may need additional sedation.

To mitigate stress and its consequences during your pet’s hospital stay, anti-anxiety medications may also be given as needed.

Your pet may be able to go home or may need continued hospitalization, depending on the procedure, how quickly she makes a full recovery from the anesthesia and her medical condition.

Has your family veterinarian referred your pet to our hospital for a procedure? Are you concerned about anesthesia? Give us a call to discuss the safety measures we take with every pet under the supervision of our board-certified anesthesiologist.

Common Exotic Pet Emergencies

Pets don’t fall ill on a nine-to-five schedule, and they often require after-hours care. Emergency treatment can be easily found at night or on weekends for dogs and cats, but what about exotic pets? Reptiles, birds, and small mammals are excellent at hiding signs of illness and may not show any visible symptoms until they require urgent care. We are excited to announce that we now offer night and weekend emergency care for scaled, furry, and feathery pets. If your family exotic pet veterinarian is not open, we are here.

How to tell if your exotic pet requires emergency care

Exotic pets require routine veterinary care just like dogs and cats, and often need an emergency veterinarian’s services as well. A pet may appear healthy when you leave in the morning but show signs of illness by the time you return home. It’s difficult to know whether your exotic pet requires immediate treatment or can wait until your family exotic veterinarian is open, so we’ve put together a list of signs that your exotic pet needs emergency veterinary care.

  • Birds require emergency care if you see:
    • Weakness
    • Bleeding
    • Straining to defecate
    • Struggling to lay an egg
    • Refusing to eat or drink
    • Staying in the bottom of the cage
    • Fluffed or ruffled feathers
    • Pronounced keel bone
    • Loose stool
    • Labored breathing
    • Discharge from the eyes, ears, or beak
    • Continuous squinting or closing of eyes

 

  • Ferrets require emergency care if they exhibit:
    • Diarrhea
    • Vomiting
    • Tense abdomen
    • Decreased urination
    • Pawing at the mouth, which may indicate nausea due to low blood sugar
    • Depression
    • Lack of appetite

 

  • Guinea pigs and rabbits who show these signs require emergency care:
    • Diarrhea
    • Decreased stool production
    • Lack of appetite
    • Head tilt
    • Pain
    • Rolling or flipping
    • Depression or lethargy

 

Guinea pigs and rabbits may have serious gastrointestinal issues if they are not eating. The gastrointestinal tract can go into stasis, which may require hospitalization and treatment, or even surgery, to correct. We recommend syringe-feeding ground pellets or Oxbow Critical Care mixed with water to provide enough fiber to stimulate the gastrointestinal system until you can get your pet to a veterinary hospital.

  • Reptiles require emergency care in these situations:
    • Cold body temperature
    • Weakness
    • Prolapse of body tissue through the vent or rear
    • Paralysis

chameleon

In general, if your exotic pet appears weak or lethargic, is not eating or drinking, or has a decreased stool or urine output, she likely requires emergency care. Don’t hesitate—if your exotic pet is not eating, even for less than a day, that is an emergency.

Exotic pets, especially reptiles, are adept at appearing healthy, and it may be late at night or during the weekend when you realize she has a problem. Exotic pets often require specialized care, so be sure to have emergency exotic pet care in place in addition to your regular veterinarian. We strive to be there for your pet when your family veterinarian is unavailable, and we will stabilize her and transfer her back to their care. Together, we provide round-the-clock care for your pet in all situations.

Is your family exotic veterinarian closed and you think your pet may need urgent care? Don’t worry about the late hour or holiday season—give us a call to see if your feathered, scaled, or furry friend requires immediate treatment.

Are Vegetarian and Vegan Diets Safe for Pets?

There is a lot of talk about what our pets should and shouldn’t eat—especially online. For pet owners, this can be quite frustrating. The newest talk in the Internet-world is vegetarian and vegan diets for dogs and cats. Like many pet owners, you may be wondering if these types of diets are suitable for pets. We want to give you the accurate information you need to make an informed decision.

Vegetarian and Vegan Diets for Dogs

Many people are switching over to vegetarian diets. As they transition, they often consider a vegetarian diet for their pets. For dogs, vegetarian diets can work, but pet owners should consult with a veterinarian and their advice strictly throughout the process.

There are many nutrients that our pets (and humans) get from animal sources that are hard, if not impossible, to get from other sources without supplements. When determining whether or not dogs can eat a vegetarian or vegan diet, the main factor is whether or not pet owners are going to be able to come up with meals that include the right amount of protein and other important nutrients they need.

Vegetarian diets are fairly feasible for dogs, because they are natural omnivores (contrary to popular belief that dogs are carnivores) and need less protein in their diets than some other companion animals, such as cats. Most vegetarian diets include eggs, which are a great source of protein and contain a lot of amino acids that dogs need to stay healthy.

Vegan diets are a little trickier. Protein is vital for dogs and it is essential that dogs receive protein in some form. With the right balance of plant-based proteins, your dog can get everything that it needs, but this type of diet is best determined with the help of a professional. To supplement the lack of meat, the right balance of beans, corn, soy, and/or whole grains will be necessary. Many dogs, however, will miss having meat in their diet and may refuse food that doesn’t contain the tasty meat that they are used to eating. If your dog is refusing to eat a vegetarian or vegan diet, you may need to revert back to a traditional diet. A dog that refuses food for too long can experience resulting health issues.

Vegetarian and Vegan Diets for Cats

For cats, vegetarian and vegan diets are inappropriate and unfeasible for a variety of reasons. First, cats need vitamin D3, and they can’t produce it in their skin like people can. Unlike vitamin D2, vitamin D3 can only be found in animal-based sources. While dogs and people can use vitamin D2, cats really rely on D3.

Taurine is another nutrient that cats can’t make on their own. Taurine is an essential amino acid that is mostly found in muscle meat and organs, such as hearts, livers, kidneys, and seafood. Without meat in their diet, cats could develop an imbalance of taurine and other amino acids and essential fatty acids like L-carnitine and arachidonic acids. Over time, this imbalance could lead to a severe deficiency.

Vegetarian and vegan diets are also unlikely to get cats the recommended amount of protein that they need per day. It is recommended that cats get at least 25 grams of protein per 1,000 calories consumed.

Over time, without meat in their diets, cats can develop serious medical conditions, some of which can’t be reversed. The most common of these conditions is taurine-related dilated cardiomyopathy, which is an enlarged heart with weak contractions and poor pumping ability. Taurine deficiency can also cause eye problems, growth problems, and reproductive failures. In some cases, the condition can be life-threatening.

Changing Your Pet’s Diet

Before you ever change your pet’s diet, you should always consult with a veterinarian. While there are instances where a veterinarian will recommend removing meat from your pet’s diet, it is important that it is done in a safe, healthy manner. Often meat-less diets are recommended only for pets that have food allergies, liver disease, or frequent bladder stones.

It is important to also remember that all pets may have unique dietary needs. For this reason, not all pets can be placed on certain diets, and some pets will do well on diets that might be very harmful to other pets.

To convert your pet to a diet with little or no animal products, you will need to work closely with a veterinarian or veterinary nutritionist. A professional will be able to craft a diet that is appropriate for your pet. If you have any more questions about vegetarian and vegan diets for dogs and cats, give VRC a call today at 610-647-2950. We would be happy to get you in contact with a veterinary nutritionist that can help you come up with an appropriate diet for your pet’s unique needs.

Avoid Pet Surgery This Winter

The holidays are a joyous and warm time, that is until your pet gets into something he or she shouldn’t and needs to see a veterinarian. Some injuries and accidental ingestions may be a minor issue that a little bandaging or fluids can remedy, but some can be more severe and require emergency surgery. One of our surgeons, Dr. Dietrich Franczuszki has some tips on avoiding pet surgery this winter.

Winter Wonderland Mishaps

Many pets get very excited by the snow, especially if they rarely see or have never seen it. The squishy, white fluff coating the world can be incredibly enticing until dogs lose their balance on ice or overexert themselves with rough play. This can lead to injuries like torn cruciate ligaments or dislocated kneecaps, all of which might require surgery. Consider getting special snow booties for your pet that help them maintain their balance and if your pet gets excitable in the snow, try to keep him or her in a smaller enclosed area or on a leash when outside to avoid too much running and jumping.

Osteoarthritis can also flare up more in cold weather, resulting in joint swelling and pain for your pet. If your pet has a history of osteoarthritis, do what you can to keep him or her warm inside as much as possible and consider buying doggie outerwear for short trips outside. Warm compresses to the affected joints may also ease the pain.

Biting Off More Than They Can Chew

Certain holiday and winter-related objects can cause internal obstruction or even toxicity if ingested. Antifreeze is extremely toxic for pets, so much so that for cats, even just a lick at the bottom of someone’s shoe after stepping in antifreeze can be fatal.  Keep this product far away from pets and wash hands well after use.

Holiday decorations like balloons, tinsel, and ornaments, as well as small toys, wrapping paper, and batteries, can be an issue if ingested. Even less considered holiday items like kebab skewers, toothpicks, sewing and knitting needles (anyone embroidering a stocking?), etc. can cause piercing or blockage of essential organs.

Many of these items require minimally invasive or invasive surgical removal as they can cause an obstruction that may not resolve on its own, and in some cases, like batteries, toxic leakage. It’s also very important to remember that if you see something hanging out of your pet’s mouth or behind (such as tinsel or string), DO NOT attempt to pull it out. This string might be wrapped around something internally that could cause extreme damage if pulled. If you see this, bring your pet to a veterinarian right away for professional removal.

At VRC, we offer both minimally invasive and traditional surgical solutions for your pet, as well as a variety of on-site diagnostic capabilities like X-ray, ultrasound, and CT should your pet ingest something they shouldn’t. We are open 24/7, 365 days a year for emergency care and also offer 24/7 emergency surgery if needed.